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Herpesviruses

A review of Herpesviruses.

Herpesviruses

from from Alphaherpesviruses: Molecular Virology edited by Sandra K. Weller (2011)

The Herpesviruses or Herpesviridae are a large family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in animals, including humans read more ...

Subversion of Interferon Responses by Herpesviruses

from Paul T. Sobol and Karen L. Mossman writing in Alphaherpesviruses: Molecular Virology:

Key to the innate immune response to alpha herpesvirus infection is the expression and secretion of type I interferons (IFNs). This family of cytokines bolsters a host offensive to invading pathogens by inducing IFN stimulated genes (ISGs). Not surprisingly, the evolutionary pressure faced by alpha herpesviruses to adapt to the type I IFN response has shaped alpha herpesvirus evolution at the very interface of the virus-host interaction. The cumulative effects of type I IFN expression on alpha herpesvirus replication in vitro and dissemination in vivo are discussed in a recent review, along with mechanisms employed by these viruses to subvert the type I IFN response. Alpha herpesviruses block type I IFN production, inhibit the effects of type I IFN signal transduction and suppress downstream IFN-dependent effector pathways with the aims of augmenting viral replication and dissemination read more ...

Molecular Chaperones and Alphaherpesvirus Infection

from Christine M. Livingston, Christos Kyratsous, Saul Silverstein and Sandra K. Weller writing in Alphaherpesviruses: Molecular Virology:

Molecular chaperone proteins have long been recognized to play diverse and important roles in the life cycles of viruses from bacteriophage to SV40 to herpesviruses. The alphaherpesviruses HSV-1 and VZV not only interact with and reorganize cellular chaperones and co-chaperones but alphaherpesviruses also encode their own molecular chaperones. Cellular chaperones such as Hsp70, Hsc70 and Hsp90 are required for efficient production of infectious virus in that they play essential roles in nuclear transport of viral proteins, protein quality control and maintenance of cellular homeostasis during viral infection. These findings raise the possibility that molecular chaperones could be utilized as effective targets for antiviral therapy. A recent review reviews the evidence that replication of the human alphaherpesviruses herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and 2) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) requires the activities of cellular and viral molecular chaperones read more ...

Herpesviruses and Autophagy

from Philipe A.M. Gobeil and David A. Leib writing in Alphaherpesviruses: Molecular Virology:

Autophagy is a rapidly growing area of biomedical research with broad relevance to fields including microbiology, cell biology, immunology, cancer biology, and neurodegeneration. In infection and immunity, it is emerging as a pivotal pathway mediating direct pathogen degradation as well as for the development of robust innate and adaptive immune responses. Successful pathogens have evolved to either evade or harness the autophagy pathway to further their replication and pathogenesis. In a recent review the basic aspects of autophagy will be described, along with its role in cellular homeostasis, and the development of immunity. The primary focus is a survey of past and recent research defining the interplay of autophagy and the herpesviruses, with particular reference to immune evasion and pathogenesis read more ...

Human Alpha-herpesvirus MicroRNAs

from Jennifer L. Umbach and Bryan R. Cullen writing in Alphaherpesviruses: Molecular Virology:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an extensive class of approx 22 nucleotide long regulatory RNAs expressed by all mammalian cells and also by several DNA viruses, including many members of the herpesvirus family. Using deep sequencing technology, it has now been demonstrated that Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) encodes at least eight viral miRNAs, seven of which are expressed in latently infected human neurons. Similarly, HSV-2 has also been shown to encode at least six miRNAs, four of which are evolutionarily conserved between HSV-2 and HSV-1. Perhaps surprisingly, varicella zoster virus does not appear to express any viral miRNAs in latently infected cells. A recent review discusses the potential functions of the currently known HSV-1 and HSV-2 miRNAs, focusing on a possible role in stabilizing viral latency in infected neurons read more ...

from Alphaherpesviruses: Molecular Virology edited by Sandra K. Weller (2011)

References